Tscherne and Gotzen classification of soft-tissue injury
- (Tsherne H, Gotzen L: Fractures with Soft Tissue Injuries. Monograph 1-58. Berlin, Springer-Verlag 1984)
- Type 0=minimal soft-tissue damage resulting from an indirect mechanism of injury that has caused a simple bone fracture.
- Type 1=superficial abrasion or soft-tissue contusion caused by pressure from the bone injury with a mild to moderately severe fracture pattern.
- Type 2=deep contaminated abrasion associated with localized skin and muscle contusion, an impending compartment syndrome, and a high-energy fracture pattern.
- Type 3=extensive skin contusion or crushing, underlying severe muscle damage, a compartment syndrome, and a severe fracture pattern.
Gustilo Classificaiton of open fractures
- Grade I=minor open fx, <1cm, simple fx patterns
- Grade II=1-10cm wound, simple fx patterns with minimal periosteal stripping
- Grade III=severe soft-tissue damage, IIIA can be closed primarily, IIIB require flap, IIIC arterial injury requiring repair.
- rate of infection not changed by time to surgery (<6hours vs >7hrs but within 24hrs) in children who receive early antibiotic treatment. (Skaggs, JBJS Am 2005;87:8)