- Increased risk of pulmonary complications with surgery.
- Smoking should stop at least 8 weeks prior to elective surgery.
- Smoking decrease bone healing. (W-Dahl A, Toksvig-Larsen S. Cigarette smoking delays bone healing: a prospective study of 200 patients operated on by the hemicallotasis technique. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004 Jun;75(3):347-51.)
- Non-smokers and prior smokers who quite a minimum of 1 year prior to TJA have a lower risk of wound complication after TJA. (Duchman K, ORS annual meeting 2015)
- Nicotine caused a delay in tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff animal model. (Galatz, LM, JBJS 2006;88A:2027)