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  • Increased risk of pulmonary complications with surgery.
  • Smoking should stop at least 8 weeks prior to elective surgery.
  • Smoking decrease bone healing. (W-Dahl A, Toksvig-Larsen S. Cigarette smoking delays bone healing: a prospective study of 200 patients operated on by the hemicallotasis technique. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004 Jun;75(3):347-51.)
  • Non-smokers and prior smokers who quite a minimum of 1 year prior to TJA have a lower risk of wound complication after TJA. (Duchman K,  ORS annual meeting 2015)