Sesamoid Pain / Fracture M25.879 733.99

 bipartite tibial sesamoid 
ICD-9 Classification / Treatment
Etiology / Natural History Associated Injuries / Differential Diagnosis
Anatomy Complications
Clinical Evaluation Follow-up Care
Xray / Diagnositc Tests Review References

synonyms: sesamoid pain, sesamoid fracture, Ballet dancer, sesamoiditis

Sesamoid ICD-10

Sesamoid ICD-9

  •  733.99 Other disorders of bone and cartilage; diaphysitis, hypertrophy of bone, relapsing polychondritis.

Sesamoid Etiology / Epidemiology / Natural History

  • can be acute fx, stress fx, sesamoiditis, chondromalacia, FHB tendonitis, OCD
  • tibial sesamoid more commonly injured
  • Sesamoiditis:  tendons surrounding the sesamoids become irritated or inflamed. Common in ballet dancers, runners and baseball catchers.

Sesamoid Anatomy

  • Bipartite tibial (medial) sesamoid is common:  10% of population, 25% will be bilateral.  Fibular sesamoid rarely is bipartite.

Sesamoid Clinical Evaluation

  • pain around big toe
  • pain exacerbated when hallux extends in the terminal part of the stance phase of gait
  • neuritic symptoms may occur if digital nerve is compressed

Sesamoid Xray / Diagnositc Tests

  • AP, oblique xray
  • medial oblique(sesamoid view) shows tibial sesamoid
  • axial sesamoid view shows fibular sesamoid
  • Bone scan

Sesamoid Classification / Treatment

  • Sesamoiditis=NSAIDS, activity modification, full-length shoe orthosis with a metatarsal pad and a relief beneath the 1st MT head
  • tibial sesamoid stress fracture, the initial treatment of choice is cast immobilization.  Excision, partial excision, and bone grafting are reserved for refractory cases.  Cortisone injections, taping, and pads do not adequately immobilize the sesamoid. (ahss MH: The sesamoids of the hallux.  Clin Orthop 1981;157:88-97.
  • Excision is the treatment of choice for persistent sesamoid pain that has failed to respond to nonsurgical management.  This is true whether the cause of the pain is sesamoiditis, fracture, or osteonecrosis.  The fibular sesamoid can be excised via a dorsal or plantar approach.  In high-level athletes who have an acute fracture that has progressed to a nonunion, bone grafting has had some success (Anderson RB, McBryde AM Jr: Autogenous bone grafting of hallux sesamoid nonunions.  Foot Ankle Int 1997;18:293-296.)
  • Shaving of the tibial sesamoid is considered the treatment of choice for discreet hyperkeratotic lesions under the tibial sesamoid that fail to respond to conservative management.  Dorsiflexion osteotomy is reserved for a large, diffuse intractable plantar keratosis under the entire metatarsal head

Sesamoid Associated Injuries / Differential Diagnosis

  • Gout (Reber PU, Patel AG, Noesberger B, et al: Gout: Rare cause of hallucal sesamoid pain: A case report.  Foot Ankle Int 1997;18:818-820: Mair SD, Coogan AC, Speer KP, et al: Gout as a source of sesamoid pain.  Foot Ankle Int 1995;16:613-616.)

Sesamoid Complications

  • The most significant complication after partial excision of the tibial sesamoid is injury to the medial plantar cutaneous nerve through the plantar medial approach

Sesamoid Follow-up Care


Sesamoid Review References

  • Coughlin MJ: Sesamoid pain: Causes and surgical treatment, in Green WB (ed): Instructional Course Lectures XXXIX.  Park Ridge, IL, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1990, pp 23-35.