Glenoid Hypoplasia

Glenoid bone anatomy   

synonyms: glenoid hypoplasia, glenoid dysplagia, dysplagia of the scapular neck

Glenoid Hypoplasia ICD-9

Glenoid Hypoplasia Etiology / Epidemiology / Natural History

  • Failure of the inferior glenoid to ossify
  • Incidence of glenoid hypoplasia ranges from 18% to 35%.
  • Generally bilateral and symmetric

Glenoid Hypoplasia Anatomy

  • Gleniod is formed by consolidation of the secondary centers of ossification of the superior glenoid, inferior glenoid and coracoid process.

Glenoid Hypoplasia Clinical Evaluation

  • May have decreased abduction, decreased forward flexion, mild acillary webbing
  • Multidirectional instability

Glenoid Hypoplasia Xray / Diagnositc Tests

  • A/P and Lateral view in the plane of the scapula, and axillary view.
  • West Point view: patient prone with arm in 90° abduction and neutral rotation. Xray beam is directed 25° posterior to the horizontal plane and 25° medial to the vertical plane. Useful for evaluating the anterior glenoid rim.
  • CT scan is best to evaluate bony anatomy.
  • MRI arthrogram (gadolinium): the anterior and posterior labrum are best seen on axial images and appear as dark triangular structures.

Glenoid Hypoplasia Classification / Treatment

  • Treatment: PT with ROM and strengthening exercses focused on deltoid, RTC and parascapular muscles.
  • Surgical treatment options: glenoid reaming, glenoid bone grafting, TSA, reverese TSA.

Glenoid Hypoplasia Associated Injuries / Differential Diagnosis

  • Skeletal dysplacia
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis
  • Holt-Oram Syndrome
  • Apert's syndrome
  • Cornelia de Lange's Syndrome

Glenoid Hypoplasia Complications

Glenoid Hypoplasia Follow-up Care

Glenoid Hypoplasia Review References

  • °Smith S.P., Bunker T.D. Primary glenoid dysplasia. A review of 12 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001;83(6):868–872.
  • Wirth M.A., Lyons F.R., Rockwood C.A., Jr. Hypoplasia of the glenoid. A review of sixteen patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1993;75(8):1175–1184.