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Female Athlete Triad


synonyms: female athlete, female athlete triad

Female Athlete ICD-9

Female Athlete Etiology / Epidemiology / Natural History

Female Athlete Anatomy

  • Female athletes with a higher increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads were are at increased risk of ACL tear. (Hewett TE, AJSM 2005;33:492).
  • Female athletes have a greater total valgus knee load when landing from a jump than men.

Female Athlete Clinical Evaluation

  • Obtain menstraul history: age of menarche, history of amenorrhea, use of oral contraceptives
  • Document hisoty of recurrent stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction, and/o poor nutrition/disordered eating.

Female Athlete Xray / Diagnositc Tests

  • Bone densiometry typically shows low BMD for chronological age.

Female Athlete Classification / Treatment

  • Education and prevention
  • Decrease training intensity, increase calorie intake, consider calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, nasal calcitonin.
  • Bisphosphonates are contraindicated due to teratogenic effects.
  • Best managed with multidisciplinary approach: PCP, coach, athlete, athletes family.

Female Athlete Associated Injuries / Differential Diagnosis

  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Eating disorder not otherwise specified
  • Stress Fracture

Female Athlete Complications

  • Stress fracture

Female Athlete Follow-up Care

  • Best managed with multidisciplinary approach: PCP, coach, athlete, athletes family.

Female Athlete Review References

  • Bennell KL, AJSM 1996;24:810
  • Barrow GW, AJSM 1988;16:209


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