You are here

Female Athlete Triad

 

synonyms: female athlete, female athlete triad

Female Athlete ICD-9

Female Athlete Etiology / Epidemiology / Natural History

Female Athlete Anatomy

  • Female athletes with a higher increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads were are at increased risk of ACL tear. (Hewett TE, AJSM 2005;33:492).
  • Female athletes have a greater total valgus knee load when landing from a jump than men.

Female Athlete Clinical Evaluation

  • Obtain menstraul history: age of menarche, history of amenorrhea, use of oral contraceptives
  • Document hisoty of recurrent stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction, and/o poor nutrition/disordered eating.

Female Athlete Xray / Diagnositc Tests

  • Bone densiometry typically shows low BMD for chronological age.

Female Athlete Classification / Treatment

  • Education and prevention
  • Decrease training intensity, increase calorie intake, consider calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, nasal calcitonin.
  • Bisphosphonates are contraindicated due to teratogenic effects.
  • Best managed with multidisciplinary approach: PCP, coach, athlete, athletes family.

Female Athlete Associated Injuries / Differential Diagnosis

  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Eating disorder not otherwise specified
  • Stress Fracture

Female Athlete Complications

  • Stress fracture

Female Athlete Follow-up Care

  • Best managed with multidisciplinary approach: PCP, coach, athlete, athletes family.

Female Athlete Review References

  • Bennell KL, AJSM 1996;24:810
  • Barrow GW, AJSM 1988;16:209

Disclaimer

The information on this website is intended for orthopaedic surgeons.  It is not intended for the general public. The information on this website may not be complete or accurate.  The eORIF website is not an authoritative reference for orthopaedic surgery or medicine and does not represent the "standard of care".  While the information on this site is about health care issues and sports medicine, it is not medical advice. People seeking specific medical advice or assistance should contact a board certified physician.  See Site Terms / Full Disclaimer