Modulus of Elasticity
Load to failure = The force that is measured at the time that a specimen breaks in a test involving a continuous application of force.(OKU-11)
Fatigue failure = Cyclical subfailure loading may result in failure caused by fatigue. Load-to-failure testing data are most often reported in the orthopaedic literature; however, clinical failure of fracture fixation constructs or implants is often caused by fatigue failure.(OKU-11)
Elastic modulus =The ratio of the stress to strain over a region for which the deformation is elastic, which is analogous to stiffness for force displacement. The units are the same as for stress. (OKU-11)
Yield point =The point on the stress-strain curve where deformation goes from elastic (fully recoverable on unloading) to plastic (unrecoverable).(OKU-11)
Anisotropy = The concept that properties vary along different directions. Isotropy (in contrast) implies that the properties are invariant with direction.(OKU-11)
Brittle = A material that experiences little plastic deformation (strain) before it fails is said to be brittle (for example, glass or cortical bone).(OKU-11)
Ductile = If a material has a large plastic deformation region before it fails, it is said to be ductile (for example, copper).
Toughness = A material that can absorb more energy before failure (large area under the stress-strain curve) is said to be tougher. Units for toughness are (N/m2)(m/m) or joules/m3.(OKU-11)
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