Supplements / Performance Enhancers
synonyms: Performance-enhancing drugs, PEDs
- Amphetamine and its analogs
- Ephedrine and its analogs
- Human Growht hormone (HGH)
- Insulin-like growth factors
- Masking agents: epitestosterone, probenecid, plasma expanders
- see www.wada.org for banned substance lists
- Acts as a substrate for ATP. At standard dosage increases muscle creatine by 20%.
- Protein synthesized in the liver and kidney.
- Associated with increased muscle mass, short-term improvement in sprinting, may increase anaerobic resistance performance. Improves short duration, high intensity activities.
- Common side effects: diarrhea, cramping, water retention, weight gain, nausea, abdominal cramping. Increases urine and serum creatine.
- (Branch JD, INt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003 Jun;13:198)
Glucosamine sulfate / Chondroitin Sulfate
- Glucosamine: monosaccharide precursor to gycosaminoglycans.
- Chondroitin: repeating units of galactosamine sulfate and glucouronic acid; predominant glycosaminoglycan in articular cartilage.
- Several placebo-controlled studies document substantial functional improvement. Largest randomized limited controlled study showed no benefit (Clegg DO, N Engl J Med 2006:354:795).
- Glucosamine/Chondroitin should be discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery. Concern is that glucosamine inhibits platelet activation. Guinea pigs receiving 400 mg of glucosamine had suppressed platelet activation by 51% (Lu-Suguro JF, Inflamm Res. 2005;54:493).
- Recommended dose: Glucosamine 1,500mg PO daily, Chondroitin 1,200 mg PO daily.
- Side effects: hypersensitivity in patients allergic to shellfish, GI discomfort, skin reactions.
- Imported in: muscle contraction, coagulaiton, intracellular signal transactions, controlling cell membrance potentials, bone
- Normal level: 8.5-10mg/dL. Serum calcium is 50% free ionized and 50% protein bone (mainly albumin).
- Factors decreaing Ca Resorption: increased Ca intake, increased Na intake, metabolic acidosis, phosphate depletion, glucocorticoids, furosemides
- Factors Increased Ca Resorption: PTH, PTH-related protein, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, Calcitonin, increased phosphate intake, chronic thiazide diuretics.
- Daily Recommended intake: 0-6months=210mg/dL, 6m-1y=270mg/dL, 1-3yr=500mg/dL, 4-8yrs=800mg/dL, 9-18yrs=1,300mg/dL, 19-50yrs=1,000md/dL, >51y/o=1,200mg/dL. Pregnant/lactacting=1,300mg/dL. Should be taken in devided doses not to exceed 500mg/dL to aid in resorption. Do not take at the same time as antibiotics or iron.
- Options: Calcium carbonate, calcium citrate.
- fat-soluble steriod derived from cholesterol.
- Produced in the skin during direct sunlight exposure or absorbed from dietary intake.
- Causasions need 15 minutes of direct bright sunlight exposure to hands and face per day. Longer for dark skinned individuals. Sunscreen limits Vit. D production.
- Only natural dietary sources are salmon, mackerel, sardines and other oily fish.
- Daily Recommended intake: 400-800 IU in individuals who lack adequate sunlight exposure.
- Poplular for patietns with early dementia, peripheral vascular disease, vertigo and tinnitus
- Inmproves mental alertness and cognitive deficiency.
- Antiplatelet effects
- Has been associated with spontaneous biilateal subdural hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage and postoperative bleeding. (Bebbingtion A, J Arthroplasty 2005;20:125).